Musings about FP and CS

A log of my journey through FP and CS

CLI parsing with CmdArgs.Explicit

by Clement Delafargue on March 5, 2013

Tagged as: haskell, hammertime, fp.

As a CLI program, hammertime’s UI is command-line flags and arguments. The first iteration was basic pattern matching on the result of getArgs. Then Julien refactored it with CmdArgs, a very powerful library which allows to create command-line parsers in a very declarative way. It features a multi-mode option (a bit like git add, git commit). It’s very easy to declare subcommands, each with its own set of options. It automatically creates a nicely formatted --help output.

Unfortunately, the default (and most documented) way of declaring the options is impure and uses untracked side-effects, which is generally frowned upon in the haskell community. It’s also not very typesafe and the parsing easily breaks at runtime. The CmdArgs.Implicit module also uses lots of Typeable dark magic to auto generate options from record fields. The CLI is tightly coupled to the way you name your data structures. For all these reasons, I’ve decided to rewrite the CLI from scratch, using CmdArgs.Explicit, a pure, non-magic CLI parser generator. The use of CmdArgs.Explicit is way less documented than CmdArgs.Implicit, so here’s how I did it.

You should read the following with the documentation and hammertime’s main in tabs somewhere.

Data structures

The first step is to model what the user asked with a data structure. For hammertime, the user can tell:

  • I’ve started an activity
  • I’ve stopped the current activity
  • Show me a report (with some filters)
  • Show me some help
  • Show me your version number
data Action = Start { project :: String
                    , name :: String
                    , tags :: [String]
                    }
            | Stop
            | Report { span_ :: Types.TimeSpan
                     , project_ :: Maybe String
                     , name_ :: Maybe String
                     , tag_ :: Maybe String
                     , type_ :: Types.ReportType
                     }
            | Help
            | Version
            deriving (Show)

The underscores in the name fields is because of name conflicts. Haskell’s records are quite annoying when it comes to namespacing. The deriving (Show) is not crucial but quite useful for debugging.

Declaring modes

The Start, Stop and Report actions are subcommands. Help and Version are triggered by flags (-?/--help and -V/--version respectively).

Report mode

The report mode is the easiest to declare.

reportMode :: Mode Action
reportMode = mode
                "report"
                defaultReport
                "Generate report for a given time span (default: day)"
                (flagArg setTimeSpan "month|week|day")
                [ flagReq
                    ["project", "p"]
                    setProjectFilter
                    "PROJECT"
                    "Filter by project"
                , flagReq
                    ["activity", "a"]
                    setActivityFilter
                    "ACTIVITY"
                    "Filter by activity"
                , flagReq
                    ["tags"]
                    setTagsFilter
                    "TAGS"
                    "Filter by tag"
                , flagReq
                    ["type", "t"]
                    setReportType
                    "SIMPLE|TOTAL"
                    "Report Type (default: simple)"
                ]

The Mode Action type simply states that it will extract an Action from the arguments. Mode a is just a record. There are different constructors for different kinds of modes (modeEmpty for an empty mode, mode for a regular mode or modes for subcommands).

Here we have a simple mode, so we’ll use mode:

  • "report": the subcommand
  • defaultReport the base value (will be modified by the flags)
  • "Generate report …" help text
  • (flagArg setTimeSpan "month|week|day") the argument handler
  • [ flagReq … ] the flags

The flags act as modifiers. The mode has a start value, which is then modified by flags. Thus the flags take a Update a value which takes the value given to the flag and updates the generated value.

type Update a = String -> a -> Either String a

Every flag has a required value, so we’ll use flagReq.

flagReq ["project", "p"] setProjectFilter "PROJECT" "Filter by project"
setProjectFilter :: Update Action
setProjectFilter p r = Right $ r { project_ = (Just p) }

We allow both --project and -p to be used. setProjectFilter updates the Report record with the given project name.

Anonymous arguments are like flags, they take a value and update the generated action.

Here (flagArg setTimeSpan "month|week|day") allows the user to choose the time span used to generate the report.

setTimeSpan updates the Report record with the right TimeSpan value.

Stop mode

The Stop mode is a bit different. It has no argument, so we’ll need to slightly alter the value constructed with mode.

stopMode :: Mode Action
stopMode =
    let m = mode "stop" Stop "Stop current activity" dummyArg []
    in m { modeArgs = ([], Nothing) }

dummyArg :: Arg a
dummyArg = flagArg (\_ _ -> Left "") ""

The only non-obvious part is dummyArg. A subcommand can take a various number of anonymous arguments. mode allows to specify one. Here, we don’t want any argument, so we construct the mode with a dummy argument and get rid of it just after. We also could have used modeEmpty to construct the mode only with record updates, but doing it with mode is shorter and easier to read. Anonymous arguments are like flags, they take a value and update the generated action. To handle multiple arguments, the mode’s arguments handler is ([Arg a], Maybe (Arg a)). The [Arg a] is for required arguments, the Maybe (Arg a) for optional arguments.

stopMode =
dummyArg :: Arg a
dummyArg = flagArg (\_ _ -> Left "") ""

Just to make sure we don’t forget a dummyArg somewhere, we make it fail every time.

Start mode

The start mode is a bit more complicated, because it can take a various number of arguments (at least two, project and activity name, then some tags).

startMode :: Mode Action
startMode =
    let m = mode "start" (Start "" "" []) "Start a new activity" dummyArg  []
    in m { modeArgs = ([
        (flagArg setProject "PROJECT"),
        (flagArg setActivity "ACTIVITY")
    ], Just (flagArg addTag "[TAGS]")) }

setProject and setActivity just set the project and activity with record updates. addTag appends its argument to the tag list.

addTag :: Update Action
addTag t s = Right $ s { tags = (tags s ++ [t]) }

Putting everything together

Now we have all of our submodes, we just have to put everything together (and add the version and help flags).

hammertimeModes :: Mode Action
hammertimeModes =
    let m = (modes
                "hammertime"
                 defaultReport
                 "Lightweight time tracker"
                 [startMode, stopMode, reportMode])
        helpFlag = flagHelpSimple $ const Help,
        versionFlag = flagVersion $ const Version,
        addFlags m' = m' { modeGroupFlags = toGroup [helpFlag, versionFlag] }
    in addFlags m

Now you should be able to create your CLI with CmdArgs.Explicit. Since it’s pure and without side effects, it’s testable and it won’t break at compile time :).

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